Oct 1, 2010

The Importance of Blood Transfusion in the Human Life


      The science of blood transfusion dates to the first decade of the 19th century, with the discovery of   distinct blood types leading to the practice of mixing some blood from the donor and the receiver before the transfusion ( an early form of cross-matching). Blood transfusion is the process of transferring whole blood or blood-based products from one person into the circulatory system of another. The purpose of blood transfusion are to save many human life and provide a better life.
Now days, human being are easily to be exposed to injuries and unexpected accident. This phenomena can drop a lot of blood and emergency blood transfusion must be perform to replace excessive blood loss. If the blood loss are out of control and disable to replace with new compatible blood, patient will be die within a minute. Medical  importance of blood transfusion are to provide sufficient oxygen  transportation, correct the bleeding  disorder cause by platelet abnormalities and coagulation disorder ,to alleviate anemia problem in newborn and also important in hemolytic disease of newborn protection. 

  Transfusion of blood in case of emergency can help to provide sufficient oxygen supply. In an emergency case , such as situations include trauma associated with motor vehicle accidents , stabbing , gunshot wounds , and ruptured abdominal aortic can cause blood loss in large scale .It is  necessary to transfuse a new whole blood to the patient , because the delay could be fatal. When our body loss a lot of blood, hence our body cell lack of sufficient oxygen to be used, and the result is all the vital organ for instance the brain ,heart and lung will be damaged .Our brain primarily need the blood circulation to function normally ,because red blood cell ( RBC ) provide oxygen to the brain tissues for the glucose metabolism and finally produce the energy to carry out their function. Additionally , all the vital organ receive enough oxygen from blood transfusion for cellular respiration and vital organ can be survive .The local hospital play  an importance role in providing enough blood supply in our country to make sure blood transfusion can be used in emergency situations and avoid severe to the human being.
    
   Blood transfusion  is also important in the treatment of bleeding  disorders .In the bleeding disorder patient ,blood transfusion are needed to provide new hemoglobin and platelet by correcting hemoglobin and platelet concentration in the patient’s  blood plasma. As mentioned before in the definition of blood transfusion, it is not only transfuse  the whole blood to the patient but also transferring component of the blood, such as platelet. Bleeding disorder are caused by vascular and platelet abnormalities or thrombocytopenia . The main causes of  thrombocytopenia are failure of platelet production and increased consumption of platelets. When the platelet count fall into the normal concentration its can cause prolonged dangerous bleeding after trauma. In fact , when blood vessels are damaged ,platelet help stop blood loss by forming a platelet plug. So, transfusion of platelets concentration are beneficial in patients with acute life-threatening bleeding.
          An individual who have Haemophilia A disease need blood transfusion to increase level of plasma factor VIII in the patient blood. Haemoplilia A is the most common of hereditary clotting factor deficiencies that can cause threatening coagulation disorder. In this such kind of case , bleeding episodes are treated with factor VIII replacement therapy . Factor VIII is chemical substance of clotting factor synthesized in the spleen . Replacement therapy of clotting factor need blood plasma transfusion to stop the bleeding. Bleeding is often into join or soft tissues and if poorly treated may lead to progressive joint deformity and disability .
           Blood transfusion process also practiced in obstetric or newborn patient who are suffering from anemia caused by hemolytic disease of newborn ( HDN ) . Circulation of maternal blood, that contain antibody circulate into the fetal blood circulation can cause red cell destruction and  finally lead to reduction of hemoglobin concentration, this condition are classified as anemia. The newborn are undergoing exchange blood transfusion to avoid severity . In an exchange transfusion, the baby’s blood is removed in small increment and replaced or exchanged with healthy donor blood. A one volume exchange means that the amount of blood equivalent to one blood volume will be removed and exchanged. Exchange blood transfusion not only corrects anemia but also prevents excessive bilirubin accumulation in the brain. Bilirubin are toxic to the body and need to be excreted from blood circulation. The anemia is corrected by the replacement red cell transfusion and accumulation of bilirubin is prevented by removal of the unconjugated bilirubin, found in the baby’s plasma. The product of choice for an exchange transfusion is whole blood.
           Another kind of patient or individual who need blood transfusion is a transplant candidate. Transplantation involves removing the disease portion of the body and replacing it with healthy counterpart .Selecting blood product for the transfusion therapy in transplant candidate need the medical laboratory technologist to be aware , so that the patient will not reject the healthy counterpart from the donor. Transfusion actually support of the transplant candidate varies dependent on the type of transplantation . Bone marrow transplant candidates, anemic and thrombocytopenic as a result of either their disease or preparation for transplant , require a lot of red cell and platelet transfusion .Solid organ transplantation candidates are an another example, may require transfusion therapy limited to the time during surgical procedure or during the post-operative period. This transfusion therapy can help to support the patient while the blood is moving out from own blood circulation and blood volume to be maintained.
  
        In conclusion to the important of blood transfusion , we can see that blood transfusion can be life saving in a lot of situation in the entire life of human being. Massive blood loss due to trauma,  hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, coagulation disorder and bleeding problem, all these kind of disease can be overcame with blood transfusion therapy. Blood transfusion will be creates an inspiration and better future life to the patient to stay alive and build their carrier. Blood donation and blood collection is very important in order to keep the blood banks full for when blood is needed and used in transfusion. 


References :

John C.Flynn,Jr. Essentials of Immunohematology : In chapter 13, Transfusion Therapy. (pp.183-194 ).

Williams EF. “ Current Transfusion Therapy : Indications for basic Components, ” clin lab sci, vol 7,no 4 ,July / Aug 1994.

A.V.Hoffbrand, P.A.H. Moss and J.E.Pettit ( 2006 ). Essential Haematology ,fifth edition : Chapter 23, Bleeding disorder caused by vascular and platelet abnormalities. ( pp.278-289 )

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